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Public Speaking: Step 4: Cite Sources

What is a citation?

A citation...

  • describes a book, journal article, website, or other published item
  • gives credit to the originator of an idea, thus preventing plagiarism
  • enables the reader to retrieve the item you refer to
  • includes the author, title, source (publisher and place of publication or URL), and date


Citation: the basic, pertinent information needed to find the full text of a publication. Citation formats vary according to the field of study and/or requirements of particular publications.

Citation Style: dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting. Styles include MLA, APA, Chicago, and Turabian.

Bibliography: a list of citations that appears at the end of a paper, article, chapter, or book. The bibliography is called a Works Cited list in MLA. The bibliography is referred to as a list of References in APA format.

Annotated Bibliography: each citation is followed by a brief note—or annotation—that describes and/or evaluates the source and the information found in it.

Style Guides

Visit Purdue's Online Writing Lab for writing tips and style guide help.


Style Guide for Computer Science

Chicago: is derived from the The Chicago Manual of Style, published by the University of Chicago. Chicago Style is often used in history research as well as many other disciplines.

Turabian:  Kate Turabian is the author of A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, the Chicago Style guide commonly used by students. It is based on the Chicago Style. 

Subject Guide

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Gwen Simmons
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